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Учёные поселили в мозгу крыс электронную память
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Апгрейд человеческого мозга автор работы профессор Теодор Бергер (Theodore Berger) планирует провести лет эдак через 15. Через сколько лет станет реальностью сюжет картины «Джонни Мнемоник» (Johnny Mnemonic) – пока не ясно (фото PR Newswire/ USC Viterbi School of Engineering).

Схему, заменяющую гиппокамп крысы, создали и протестировали на грызунах учёные из США. Испытания показали, что животных можно по желанию заставить запоминать те или иные действия, а также, что чип улучшает способности мозга.

Исследователи из университета Южной Калифорнии (USC) уже не первый год работают над созданием искусственного гиппокампа. В последней работе им помогали коллеги из университета Уэйк Форест (WFU).

На этот раз в своей статье, опубликованной в Journal of Neural Engineering, исследователи рассказали об электронной замене нейронной сети, формирующей долговременные воспоминания (long-term memory) у крыс – схеме, которая воспроизвела работу отдела мозга грызунов.

Два рычага (показаны зелёным и красным), нажимая которые животное получало вознаграждение, позволили учёным записать, как работает гиппокамп в процессе обучения грызуна (иллюстрация USC Viterbi School of Engineering).

В первой части эксперимента исследователи показали, что крыс можно научить нажимать левый либо правый рычаг для получения вознаграждения. Учёные вживили в мозг животных электроды, которые записывали взаимодействие участков гиппокампа, условно называемых CA3 и CA1.

Животное запоминает, какое действие приносит ожидаемый результат, благодаря взаимодействию этих отделов. В процессе обучения мозг трансформирует кратковременные воспоминания в долговременную память. Однако стоит медикаментозными способами отключить гиппокамп, как эта связь пропадает.

У натренированных крыс остаётся только кратковременная память. Дальнейшие опыты показали, что новую информацию они запомнить не в состоянии. «Они по-прежнему знали, что надо нажимать на рычаги, но о том, какой из них уже был нажат, они помнили лишь 5-10 секунд», — рассказывает профессор Бергер.

Затем по модели, записанной электродами, учёные создали электронный протез гиппокампа, копирующий взаимодействие CA3 и CA1. Вторая часть эксперимента показала, что когда грызунам внедрили устройство, в их мозге снова начала формироваться долговременная память.

Дополнительные исследования принесли ещё более поразительный результат: способности крыс с нормально работающим гиппокампом возрастали, когда в их мозг встраивали чип.

Теодор полагает, что в будущем техника, разработанная его командой, позволит заменить постаревший или повреждённый гиппокамп человека. Но для этого сначала нужно создать и испытать протез соответствующей части мозга для обезьяны.

Профессор уверен, в вопросе лечения гиппокампа гораздо больше преуспеют не медики-фармацевты, а биоинженеры. Впрочем, учёные, работающие с реальными, а не электронными участками мозга, – тоже преуспели во включении и выключении отдельных живых «схем» гиппокампа.


Источник: http://www.membrana.ru/particle/16318
Категория: наука | |Тэги: искусственные органы, нейроэлектроника, биоинженерия, нейрофизиология, память Просмотров: 2979 | Добавил: mnemonik | Рейтинг: 0.0/0 |


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